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## johnreed take 1D

 Subject: johnreed take 1D "johnreed" 10 Mar 2006 16:00:49 -0800 sci.astro
 ```As I continued my analysis of Newtonian gravitation (see Take 1C), I noted that the idea for a "mass generated" gravitational force is a consequence of three facts: (1) Our tactile sense of attraction to the earth. (2) The quantification of this sense, in terms of the product of mass and the rate of acceleration accompanying the attraction, at the earth's surface, as weight (mg). (3) Newton's third law that sets weight (mg) equal and opposite to the action caused by the earth attractor. In Take 1B I indicated that any challenge of Newton's third law, as it applies to (3) and as it applies to celestial objects at a distance, in general, must also provide a rational explanation for the fact that all objects fall at the same rate, when dropped at the same time, from the same height. This is necessary because this property of objects in freefall is explained as a consequence of Newton's third law. I noted that even with the third law, the phenomenon has perplexed us* to varying degrees,** over the years. Our conceptual difficulty arises from the idea that our tactile sense of attraction to the earth is generated by "mass", where mass is not affected by the earth attractor in a manner that is intuitively consistent with our feel of a mass derived force. For example: we explain the fact that all objects fall at the same rate, when dropped at the same time, from the same height, as a consequence of Newton's third law, in conjunction with the increased resistance we experience, that accompanies an increase in mass. However, where the increased resistance that accompanies an increase in mass, "appears" to apply everywhere else, it clearly does not apply in freefall. We detect no resistance (excluding atmospheric) during freefall. Hence our designation, "freefall". We assert this resistance to conceptually accomodate the equal and opposite equations that describe the quantitative behavior of inertial objects, with respect to the earth attractor action, in terms of our tactile sense of attraction to the earth, (mg). In Take 1C I put forward several brief, rational arguments, supporting my conclusion that the earth attractor does not act on mass. As I continued my analysis I used the descriptive phrase "my feel force" as a substitute for the word "gravity"***. I considered the freefall phenomenon properties in terms of "my feel force". I required a "massless" explanation for gravity that explained my tactile sense of attraction to the earth as an inertial object, and also explained why all inertial objects fall at the same rate, when dropped at the same time, from the same height. I sought a quantity that "is" acted upon by the earth attractor, in a manner that is consistent with the experimental data, and intuitively consistent with my "feel of force". With these considerations in place, and after much subsequent contemplation, I determined that the earth attractor acts on my constituent parts, and not on the mass of my constituent parts. Here, it at first appears that I have made no progress at all. How does the phrase "constituent parts of matter" differ from the word "matter", in describing the focus of the earth attractor action? The difference is in the increased knowledge and perspective we have acquired during the last 350 years. Where 350 years ago it was useful to describe matter, solely in terms of mass, today we must precisely define mass solely in terms of matter, as well. Today we have the periodic table. Today constituent parts of matter, translate to "atoms" and their electromagnetic components. Consider: (1) Our tactile sense of attraction to the earth: When we are in contact with the earth, we feel the resistance of the constituent parts of our body as the sum of the inertial mass of our atoms, as they each*** are attracted toward the earth by an action on the atom that we do not otherwise feel. The magnitude of the attractive action at the earth's surface is measured in terms of acceleration (g), independent of mass (m). With the balance scale, we measure the sum of this individual atomic attraction as the comparative resistance of objects, in terms of the emergent quantity, inertial mass. We call this quantity of resistance weight (mg), and we feel it as inertia, here designated also as (mg) but equivalent to (ma) anywhere else. For example, this quantitative measure of the comparative resistance of objects is also demonstrated in impact experiments, say with billiard balls, and noted as the conservation of momentum. It is important to recognize that the balance scale action tells us nothing about the specific origin and focus of the earth attractor action. It merely allows us to measure the resistance to that action, in comparative terms of mass, consistent with the measure of our tactile sense of force. If I can convey this idea alone in this post, it will be enough. It is illuminating to note that the emergent quantity "mass" as a measure of the comparative resistance of inertial objects is a logical consequence of the earth attractor atomic attraction. It is also illuminating to note that our tactile sense of physical force, defined in terms of the emergent quantity mass, allows us, as inertial objects, to set the earth attractor action as an equal and opposite manifestation of the physical force we feel, because the force we feel as an inertial object, is equal and opposite to any force we must apply to lift an inertial object. The pressure on the scale is equal to the pressure we work against, by definition. However, for equal and opposite to apply as a universal controlling force, the focus of the earth attractor and the focus of our "feel" of force must share a common causal quantity. We quantify the resistance we feel in terms of the comparative measure of mass, where the earth attractor acts on the atom, independent of its mass. (2) All objects fall at the same rate if dropped at the same time from the same height: Each constituent atom falls at the same rate whether it exists in electromagnetic part (as a charged or uncharged particle), alone (as a stable atom), or bound within a large aggregate of atoms, independent of our measure of resistance in comparative terms of mass. Where we, as inertial objects, are attracted to the earth by an undetected action on our constituent atoms. Where we only feel this action in terms of resistance, when pressed to the earth's surface. Where the atomic attraction is measured as the comparative resistance of the sum of the acted upon atoms. Where inertia and momentum are each necessarily proportional to the comparative mass of the summed atoms. And where we as inertial objects interact with similarly acted upon inertial objects, provides us the perspective that is necessary to recognize that classical mechanics when applied to the emergent quantity mass, is the science of the mechanics of the physical interactions between inertial objects, within a field that does not act on mass or on its measured consequences, inertia and momentum. I am reminded of the quote, "The fish is the last to discover water." Perhaps by Einstein. Although my articulation of these ideas can and will be vastly improved, note how nicely**** our "feel of force" (1) and our "perplexing" freefall phenomenon (2), is concurrently explained. Also note the door to conceptual comprehension that has been opened. The reader might recognize that we have the connection here between our tactile sense of attraction to the earth and a benign (with respect to our senses) manifestation of electromagnetism, which we have heretofore thought that we feel only in its electric or charged form. Here we can see that we feel it as inertia, where we do not feel it as charge. * Consider the recent development of alternate theories, that explain this phenomenon in terms of our limited perception, following the lead of Einstein's imaginary elevator experiment. On the newsgroup, Joe Fischer and Dave Orton, with their spectacular, but rather reaching (pun intended) idea for "divergent" or expanding matter, immediately comes to mind. Another newsgroup example that shows the theoretical though misdirected significance we attach to the phenomenon, can be found at Uncle Al's website, where he has compiled an exhaustive reference base citing the many verifications of the "anonymous" (a term used by Uncle Al for certain, and possibly others) nature of mass. Moreover, an examination of the internet worldwide reveals the large amount of alternative thinking that has resulted from the consideration of this phenomenon alone. The park is filled with soap box orators. ** As a partial result, the gravitational force has remained a mystery and unexplainable in terms that can be unified with our understanding of electromagnetism. Einstein and many others attempted such a unification unsuccessfully during the 20th century. *** This followed my recognition that the common principle that runs through all stable systems is "least action" (see Takes 1A and 1B), where planet orbits are merely a specific case. **** I do not want to overly detail, and so overly complexify, this post, but I have not eliminated the possibility that the earth attractor acts on our surface atoms, where we feel our entire inertial mass and quantify it in terms of weight. I base my reservation on the role of the quantity (r) in our gravitational calculations, where both the surface area and the volume of a sphere are each proportional to (r), and where a hollow and solid sphere each behave gravitationally the same. This coupled with the idea that the internal atoms of an object are already attracted at all surfaces. More contemplation in this area is ongoing. ***** One might read Take 15 together with the supplemental post to same, for another "nice" conceptual explanation, in this instance, for the Einstein-Bose Condensate. This in terms of a constructive fusion process that follows as a consequence of the Take 6 atomic structure. This can also be applied to the Take V.I introduction to the idea of a constructive fusion process for star mechanics. If the reader wishes to examine the reference "Takes" noted herein, type "johnreed take" at the Google.group screen and click the search button. Then click on the sort by date option at the mid upper right on your screen, to avoid my earlier, even more primitive attempts, to succinctly articulate these ideas. johnreed. ```
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