Importance of the Groundnut
Countries Production (Mt.) Harvest area (Ha)
World 37,057,652 26,416,717
China 15,277,455 5,125,400
India 7,500,000 8,000,000
Nigeria 2,699,000 2,782,000
USA 1,879,750 530,950
Sudan 1,200,000 1,900,000
Senegal 900,000 900,000
Indonesia 803,000 646,000
Myanmar 700,000 530,000
Effeciencies range from 500 to 3500 mt/hectacre
Origin and History of Peanuts
The peanut plant probably originated in Brazil or Peru
, although no fossil records exist to prove this. But for as
long as people have been making pottery in South America
(3,500 years or so) they have been making jars shaped like
peanuts and decorated with peanuts.
hmm, yet another New World domesticant that never made it to
the old world prior to columbus, imagine that?
RFLP variability in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) cultivars and
G. Kochert1, T. Halward1, W. D. Branch2 and C. E. Simpson3
RFLP variability was studied in eight U.S. peanut cultivars,
representing the four market types, and in 14 wild Arachis
species accessions, using random genomic clones from a PstI
library. Very low levels of RFLP variability were found among
the allotetraploids, which included the U.S. cultivars and
Arachis monticola, a wild species. The diploid wild species
were very diverse, however. RFLP patterns of the
allotetraploids were more complex than the diploids, and the
two constituent genomes could usually be distinguished. On the
basis of RFLP band sharing, A. ipaensis, A. duranensis, and A.
spegazzinii appeared most closely related to the diploid
progenitor species of the allotetraploids. A dendrogram of
relationships among the diploid wild species was constructed
based on band sharing.
Also: Peanuts: The Illustrious History of the Goober Pea,
Andrew F. Smith [University of Illinois Press:Urbana] 2002 (p.
The archaeological records supports its cultivation between
300 and 2500 BC in Peruvian desert oases (Weiss 2000, Smith
2002). Although no archaeological evidence of peanuts has been
uncovered in the area due its tropical climate, the Gurarani
region of Paraguay, eastern Bolivia, and central Bolivia
showed the greatest diversity of wild varieties of Arachis
species. The cultivated peanut was likely first domesticated
in the valleys of the Paraguay and Prarana rivers in the Chaco
region of South America (Fig 1).
[Picture- unfortunately does not include vinland, :^)]
The first written account of the crop is found with the
Spanish entry into Hispanola in 1502, where the Arawak
cultivated under the name of mani (Sauer 1993). Records from
Brazil around 1550 showed the crop was known there with the
name mandubi. Early Spanish and Portuguese accounts record the
presence of crop through of the West Indies and South America.
The North American variety comes from africa, where it was
brought their by the spanish and cultivated.