James Michael Howard wrote:
> Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Jun 29;27(3) [Epub ahead of print]
> Gender-dependent differences in sensation seeking and social interaction
> are correlated with saliva testosterone titre in adolescents.
> Kerschbaum HH, Ruemer M, Weisshuhn S, Klimesch W.
> Division of Animal Physiology, Department of Cellular Biology, University
> of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.
> OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that gender -
> dependent differences in novelty seeking, leadership, and sympathy might
> correlate with testosterone titre. Since several studies report that the
> impact of testosterone on personality traits is more visible under
> emotional challenging situations, we harvested saliva testosterone upon an
> anticipated stressor (academic examination) and under basal conditions.
> SETTING AND DESIGN: 19 female and 23 male adolescents (17 to 19 years of
> age) completed standardized questionnaires on sensation seeking, anxiety,
> and social interaction. Two weeks later, they had to write an anticipated,
> rigorous examination in mathematics in their school. Before and after the
> examination, saliva had been harvested from each subject and testosterone
> titre has been estimated. METHODS: Saliva testosterone was quantified using
> a luminescence immunoassay (LIA). Each subject completed questionnaires on
> sensations seeking according to Zuckerman (SSS - V), anxiety (STAI), and
> social interactions. RESULTS: Both genders showed an increase in their
> testosterone titre shortly after examination or announcement of test
> scores. A Spearman correlation coefficient indicated a significant
> correlation between testosterone titre and sensation seeking subscales in
> female but not in male subjects. Analysis of social interactions revealed
> that peers regarded male subjects, who had high testosterone titres, as
> leaders but not as likeable individuals, whereas they regarded female
> subjects, who had high testosterone titres, not as leaders but as highly
> likeable individuals. CONCLUSION: Theses findings strongly suggest that
> testosterone has gender specific effects on novelty seeking, dominance, and
You use the word 'gender' incorrectly. You should use the word 'sex'
instead. 'Gender' refers to language only; 'sex' refers to organisms.
Do NOT use 'gender' when referring to animals.